The biggest side affect from smoking is Cancer. Cancer is a group of many related diseases. All forms of Cancer involve out-of-control growth and spread of abnormal cells.
Telephonefaxe-mail ude. All rights reserved This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract A large volume of data has accumulated on the issues of tobacco and health worldwide. The relationship between tobacco use and health stems initially from clinical observations about lung cancer, the first disease definitively linked to tobacco use.
Almost 35 years ago, the Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Health Service reviewed over research papers on the topic of smoking and health, and publicly recognized the role of smoking in various diseases, including lung cancer.
Since then, numerous studies have been published that substantiate the strong association of tobacco use with a variety of adverse human health effects, most prominently with cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Cigarette smoking is regarded as a major risk factor in the development of lung cancer, which is the main cause of cancer deaths in men and women in the United States and the world.
Major advances have been made by applying modern genetic technologies to examine the relationship between exposure to tobacco smoke and the development of diseases in human populations. The present review summarizes the major research areas of the past decade, important advances, future research needs and federal funding trends.
Atherosclerosis, Cancer, Smoking, Tobacco A repository for the collection, analysis, validation and dissemination of all smoking and health-related data was established by the World Health Organization. The data received from various member countries were compiled into a book entitled Tobacco or Health: A Global Status Report, 1.
This report showed smoking prevalence and other tobacco use-related data from various countries and presented an analysis. It is estimated that there are approximately 1. The sex ratio of men to women is 2: There has been a significant decline in the consumption of cigarettes in the United States since The production of cigarettes continues at a steady pace mainly to meet export demands, which continue to rise due to increasing tobacco use in the rest of the world, especially in far eastern and southeastern Asia.
On the basis of consumption and disease incidence trends, it is predicted that there will be an epidemic of tobacco-related diseases in various countries of the world in the next 20 to 30 years. Similar predictions have been made by the Oxford University Center headed by Sir Richard Doll, who was one of the first researchers to link cigarette smoking with lung cancer in the s 56.
Cancer, cardiovascular diseases and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease continue to be the main health problems associated with cigarette smoking.
An extensive database has accumulated, which has consistently documented a relationship between smoking and these specific diseases. The strength of the association is further demonstrated by measuring the RR and the presence of a dose-response relationship ie, direct relationship between the intensity of exposure to cigarette smoke and the risk of disease.
According to a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report 3approximately people die of cardiovascular disease in the United States every day, which translates into one death every 33 s.
Furthermore, the likelihood of dying from heart disease increases fourfold as a result of smoking. The average decreased life span of smokers is approximately eight years.
Among United Kingdom doctors followed for 40 years, overall death rates in middle age were approximately three times higher among physicians who smoked cigarettes than in nonsmokers.
In those United Kingdom physicians who stopped smoking, even in middle age, a substantial improvement in life expectancy was noticed. These same experts found that worldwide, smoking kills three million people each year and this figure is increasing. They predict that in most countries, the worst is yet to come, because by the time the young smokers of today reach middle or old age, there will be approximately 10 million deaths per year from tobacco use.
Approximately million individuals alive today can expect to be killed by tobacco and million of these deaths will occur in the middle age group. Tobacco is already the biggest cause of adult death in developed countries. Over the next few decades tobacco is expected to become the biggest cause of adult death in the world.
For men in developed countries, the full effects of smoking can already be seen.
Tobacco causes one-third of all male deaths in the middle age group plus one-fifth in the old age group and is the cause of approximately one-half of all male cancer deaths in the middle age group plus one-third in the old age group. Of those who start smoking in their teenage years and continue smoking, approximately one-half will be killed by tobacco.
One-half of these deaths will be in middle-aged individuals 35 to 69 years of age and each will lose an average of 20 to 25 years of nonsmoker life expectancy.
In contrast, the total mortality is decreasing rapidly and cancer mortality is decreasing slowly in nonsmokers in many countries. Throughout Europe in the s, tobacco smoking caused three-quarters of a million deaths in the middle age group.Essay on hazards of smoking Posted by How to write a college compare and contrast essay nedir research paper on sustainable architecture pdf compare and contrast essay about village and city life charles darwin research paper quilling groupthink research paper?
essayez les lunettes armani. The Hazards of Smoking Smoking and its Impacts to Human Health. hazard and choosing to smoke is the risk factor. Being exposed to secondhand smoke is a risk factor as well. Students who utilize any model paper from kaja-net.com or its affiliates are REQUIRED to cite all of the sources properly when writing their own paper.
INFO. What are. Essay The Effects Of Smoking On The Health Risks Of Smoking In today’s society, there is a lot of publicity on the health risks of smoking and why it is bad. Decades ago, it was normal for someone to smoke and people would not think twice about it. youth smoking.
This paper empirically tests the effects of various price measures on youth demand for cigarettes using data collected in a recent nationally representative survey of 17, high school students.
In addition to commonly used cigarette price measures, the study also examined the effect of price as perceived by the students. The Effects of Smoking Cigarettes Essay Words | 6 Pages The Effects of Smoking Introduction Smoking cigarettes damage the body in a number of different ways.
Effects of smoking paper. Common Questions and Answers about Effects of smoking paper. smoking. Return-to-work was achieved in 71% of nonsmokers, 53% of non-quitters, and 75% of patients who quit smoking for more than 6 months after surgery.
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