The Visigoths were Arian Christians, followers of Arius who reasoned that Jesus could not logically co-exist with God and must therefore be subservient to him. Subsequently, the Church was to exert powerful influence on all aspects of social life. Almost immediately, in C. Both Muslims and Jews built a civilization, based in Cordobaknown as Al-Andalus, which was more advanced than any civilization in Europe at that time.
During the fifteenth century, Europe began a process of unprecedented expansion that by had affected all areas of the world.
This was actually part of a global tendency towards complexity among many human societies. In Eurasia, developing Iberian expansion technology, along with expanding trade, encouraged long sea voyages by Arabs, Japanese, Chinese, and Europeans.
But only the Europeans linked up all the continents in a new global age, when sea power, rather than land-based armies, was the main force in empire-building.
Overseas expansion was obviously related - both as cause and effect - to the European transition from medievalism. The Crusades and the Renaissance stimulated European curiosity; the Reformation produced thousands of zealous religious missionaries seeking foreign converts and refugees seeking religious freedom; and the monarchs of emerging sovereign states sought revenues, first from trade with the Orient and later by exploiting a new world.
Perhaps the most permeating influence was the rise of European capitalism, with its monetary values, profit-seeking motivations, investment institutions, and constant impulse toward economic expansion.
Some historians have labeled this whole economic transformation "the Commercial Revolution. Interpreted either way, the Commercial Revolution and its accompanying European expansion Iberian expansion usher in the modern era.
By the middle of the seventeenth century, the full impact of the Commercial Revolution had not yet been experienced in Europe.
Neither the Portuguese nor the Spanish, who were dominant overseas until the late s, could maintain their initial advantages over the long term. Portugal lacked manpower and resources required by an empire spread over three continents.
Spain wasted the wealth of the New World in continuous wars, while neglecting to develop its own economy. In Portuguese pepper cost 80 percent less than that which came through Venice and the eastern Mediterranean.
Iberian expansion also inspired other Europeans with hope and confidence while effecting a mixing of peoples, a diffusion of cultures, and an intercontinental exchange of plants and animals such as the world had never seen before.
Boorstin, The Discoverers, New York: Random House,p. Muslim control over the eastern caravan routes, particularly after the Turks took Constantinople inbrought rising prices while emphasizing European weaknesses against Turkish land forces. But the sprawling Islamic world lacked both unity and intimidating sea power.
China after abandoned its extensive naval forays into the Indan Ocean. Portugal and Spain, still involved in their centuries-old struggle with Muslims in the Mediterranean, were thus encouraged to seek new sea routes to the east, where they might find the Turks vulnerable or drain the rich ports of sub-Sahara Africa and southern Asia.
By the s, the Iberian states were already proficient in new naval technology and tactics. Like other Europeans, the Portuguese and Spanish and long since adopted the compass and astrolabe, thus partially freeing themselves from land-hugging on long voyages. They were skilled cartographers and chartmakers, especially the Portuguese.
But their main advantages lay with their ships and naval guns. The stormy Atlantic required broad bows, deep keels and complex square rigging for driving and maneuvering fighting ships.
Armed with brass cannons, such ships could sink enemy vessels, without ramming or boarding at close quarters. They could also batter down coastal defenses.
Even the great Chinese junks, although often much larger than European ships, could not equal European maneuverability and firepower. In addition to their superior ships, the Iberians were aided by an unique psychological orientation. Long and bitter wars with the Moors had left the Portuguese and Spanish with fanatical religious obsessions, which encouraged them to covert heathen and destroy infidels in the name of Christ.
Sailors with Columbus recited vespers every night, and Portuguese seamen were equally devout. Maritime missions were regarded as holy crusades. For two centuries hopes that Ethiopia might become a powerful ally against the Muslims had encouraged Iberian religious prejudice against Islam.
Such tales helped generate the myth of "Prester John," a mighty Ethiopian king, somewhere on the other side of Africa, who might help launch another crusade.
Aftera few Europeans reached Ethiopia. The results of their efforts are unrecorded, but inZara Yakob, the reigning Negus, sent a delegation to Naples and Rome. His envoys conferred with the pope and enlisted European artisans, who returned with the delegation to Ethiopia. This dream of war for the cross was sincere, but it also helped rationalize more worldly economic concerns.
Both Spain and Portugal experienced dramatic population growth between and The Iberian Peninsula / aɪ ˈ b ɪər i ə n /, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe. The peninsula is principally divided between Spain and Portugal, Highest elevation: 3, m (11, ft).
Beginnings Of North European Expansion. European overseas expansion after entered a second phase, comparable to developments at home. As Spain declined, so did the Spanish empire and that. The Iberian Golden Age European Expansion: Exploration And Colonization, Author: Allen Pikerman Date: Introduction During the fifteenth century, Europe began .
The Iberian Wedding . For a better readability this event has been split into two infoboxes, one for Castile and one for Aragon. Spain is one of the last remaining refuges of the European wolf.
The Iberian wolf population is slowly recovering from its low of odd individuals with current () figures estimated at as many as 2,,, almost 30% of European wolf numbers outside the ex-USSR.
The core of the campaign history of the Roman military is an aggregate of different accounts of the Roman military's land battles, Rome's conflict with the Carthaginians in the Punic Wars led them into expansion in the Iberian peninsula of modern-day Spain and Portugal.