Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. February Learn how and when to remove this template message Most organizations have a number of information security controls.
Job Rotation[ edit ] Job Rotation is an approach to management development where an individual is moved through a schedule of assignments designed to give him or her a breath of exposure to the entire operation. Job rotation is also practiced to allow qualified employees to gain more insights into the processes of a company and to increase job satisfaction through job variation.
Separation of Duties[ edit ] Separation of duties SoD is the concept of having more than one person required to complete a task.
It is alternatively called segregation of duties or, in the political realm, separation of powers. Especially as each separated department individual will just glance at their application software used to manage their specified section on their monitor screen and seeing no obvious errors assume the unknown error causing complete system or process failure problem is not within their section and go back to the practice of effective communicating while writing all the great accomplishments they delivered that furthered the entity's stated goals to have available for their next review with management because that's what HR told them to do.
Not that this behavior is faulty or wrong in any sense and it is actually doing what the entity's incentives are geared to encourage not only for advancement but to keep a job as well. Without those few and far between expert level techs who can have or get the administration rights to view all aspects of any given production process it will be nearly impossible to determine the underlying cause and can lead to outrageous decisions as to what the problem must of been.
Or nobody realizing the automated software machine was running into RAM issues because every automated job was set to auto start at exactly 6: With the concept of SoD, business critical duties can be categorized into four types of functions, authorization, custody, record keeping and reconciliation.
In a perfect system, no one person should handle more than one type of function. In information systems, segregation of duties helps reduce the potential damage from the actions of one person. IS or end-user department should be organized in a way to achieve adequate separation of duties Control Mechanisms to enforce SoD There are several control mechanisms that can help to enforce the segregation of duties: Audit trails enable IT managers or Auditors to recreate the actual transaction flow from the point of origination to its existence on an updated file.
Good audit trails should be enabled to provide information on who initiated the transaction, the time of day and date of entry, the type of entry, what fields of information it contained, and what files it updated.
Reconciliation of applications and an independent verification process is ultimately the responsibility of users, which can be used to increase the level of confidence that an application ran successfully. Exception reports are handled at supervisory level, backed up by evidence noting that exceptions are handled properly and in timely fashion.
A signature of the person who prepares the report is normally required.
Manual or automated system or application transaction logs should be maintained, which record all processed system commands or application transactions.
Supervisory review should be performed through observation and inquiry and the trust built with directory one-level up managers. To compensate repeated mistakes or intentional failures by following a prescribed procedure, independent reviews are recommended.
Such reviews can help detect errors and irregularities but are usually expensive can raise questions as to how much can an outside independent review once a quarter know about your processes compared to people within and what level of trust can be built with those independent reviewers.
Least Privilege Need to Know [ edit ] Introduction The principle of least privilege, also known as the principle of minimal privilege or just least privilege, requires that in a particular abstraction layer of a computing environment every module such as a process, a user or a program on the basis of the layer we are considering must be able to access only such information and resources that are necessary to its legitimate purpose.
This principle is a useful security tool, but it has never been successful at enforcing high assurance security on a system. Benefits Better system stability. When code is limited in the scope of changes it can make to a system, it is easier to test its possible actions and interactions with other applications.ISO/IEC Code of Practice for Information Security Management is a generic set of best practices for the security of information systems.
Considered the foremost security specification document in the world, the code of practice includes guidelines for all organizations, no matter what their. ISO / IEC - Information Security Standard.
Formerly a British Standard (BS ), ISO is now the international standard setting out how businesses should conduct the management of their information security requirements.
Historical Development: The original version of the document upon which ISO is based (the "DTI Information Security Code of Practice") was much small in scope than the current, and identified 10 controls which were considered to be . ISO Central is intended to be a launch pad for those seeking help with this international standard.
It offers information, tips, guides and links to a range of resources. IT risk management is the application of risk management methods to information technology in order to manage IT risk, i.e.. The business risk associated with the use, ownership, operation, involvement, influence and adoption of IT within an enterprise or organization.
An organization that is using ISO and ISO can design a security posture or security program that is in line with the specification and follows the guidance of the Code of Practice, and that is, therefore, capable of achieving external certification.