Advanced Search Abstract There are complex reciprocal relationships between health and social, emotional and economic factors in aging populations. Social and affective neurosciences are rapidly developing an understanding of the mechanisms underlying these phenomena using sophisticated behavioural, neuroimaging and psychophysiological methods. These techniques are often complex and expensive, so are generally used in relatively small selected samples rather than in large-scale cohort studies.
Such policies have, indeed, often had a negative impact. Two reasons for this have already been made clear: The lack of gender-disaggregated data has probably been the main constraint to serious consideration of women's real role in agriculture.
Such data would help to enlist women's full participation in the formulation of rural development and food security strategies.
In addition, gender-disaggregated data would illuminate gender-differentiated impacts on food and cash crop production, financial management and supervision, and the storage and sale of agricultural products.
Secure land rights encompass the rights to lease public land and use community-owned property, and not just the right to own private property. Women would certainly make better use of land to which they had some sort of guaranteed rights, as such rights would help and encourage them to make the correct long-and short-term input and management decisions and achieve higher yields.
Women have had limited access to land nearly everywhere throughout history. Even agrarian reform or resettlement programmes have failed to solve this problem - indeed they have aggravated it by allocating land to the head of the family, who is presumed to be a man.
Those responsible for the design and execution of such programmes have paid little attention to the question of who is really responsible for the household or productive unit.
In addition, the modernization of agriculture has often led to whole populations being moved off the best land to make room for cash crops, making once self-sufficient farmers dependent on getting food from other sources.
In contrast, however, agrarian reform in some countries, such as Thailand, China, Nicaragua, Malaysia and Cuba, has led to changes in systems that once relegated women to a subordinate position in family food production.
Many women have also organized themselves to claim access to collectively owned land. Limited access to land is still a major constraint to women's full participation in rural development.
The Beijing Platform for Action underlined this aspect as a direct cause of female poverty. Among the options for eradicating poverty, it urged governments to implement policies to promote women's access to and control over land, and to reform legislation that deprived women of the right to own and inherit land.
In rural areas, where fetching water can take all day, women are responsible for providing it to the family unit.
Water is needed for food preparation, drinking, personal hygiene and watering the garden and livestock.
Women cannot afford to waste a drop of it. They know the local sources of good drinking-water, which they have to fetch, store and manage.
They recycle it for washing and watering, maximizing water use and keeping it as clean as possible. They have acquired real expertise in water management, and consideration and recognition of this is crucial to the success of water conservation programmes and policies. Despite this, agricultural sector policies tend to favour monocropping for cash over the crop diversification that is typical of and essential to rural food production.
One feature of this approach is that little attention is paid to small-scale irrigation and water supply systems that are appropriate to small farmers. The needs, as well as the water management expertise, of the men and women in this subsector are overlooked. In many cases, water is monopolized and channeled, and rivers and streams are diverted for commercial irrigation, depriving many small settlements and farm plots.
Drainage systems are built and cause water supplies to become polluted with pesticides and other contaminants. Water is wasted, and no thought is given to recycling this resource, or even using it in a rational way. Decisions regarding the scheduling of water in irrigated zones tend to be made without women's on-farm and home activities being taken into account.
The exclusion of women from water management and irrigation projects is a key factor in the frequent failure of both water and poverty alleviation projects. Despite this, agricultural research has focused nearly exclusively on profitable cash crops and other basic commodities such as maize, to the detriment of cereal, fruit, pulse and vegetable crops.
To achieve sustainable agricultural production in developing countries, research programmes need to target food crops and small livestock, making the most of the farming expertise of women who are responsible for growing food.
FAO studies confirm that women constitute the backbone of the small farming sector, they produce 60 to 80 percent of the food in developing countries and 50 percent worldwidedo much of the work on the farm and provide for their families. However, they have much less access than men to the information and farm support services that were established to boost productivity.
Micro-economic studies in Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa have shown that women also play a decisive role in specific cash crop operations.
In many countries they are responsible for coastal and inland fisheries in rivers and lagoons; the production of secondary crops; gathering forest products, fuelwood and water; processing and conserving food; and fetching the family's water supply.
Women are extremely knowledgeable about the value and use of wild and domestic varieties, and this has major implications for food, health, income and the conservation of plant genetic resources.
If women are overlooked as food producers and resource managers, modern technology will lose the benefit of traditional practices. New approaches now being introduced will bring women into agricultural research, harnessing their special skills in production and biodiversity for their own benefit and for that of society.
There are pragmatic gender differences in men's and women's knowledge about the environment, plants and animals, and their respective uses and products. This gender differentiated knowledge is crucial to in situ genetic resource conservation, management and improvement.
Deciding which species to conserve demands an intimate local understanding of the value of each resource. In times of famine, drought and war, people often depend on their familiarity with wild plants and animals to feed themselves.
Subsistence farmers the majority of whom are women in most parts of the world are not in a position to buy such inputs as fertilizers, pesticides and veterinary medicines and have to fall back on their ability to adapt to the environment, which allows them to grow a wide range of crops and to buffer crop failure and livestock disease or death by finding alternative food sources in the wild.
For subsistence farmers, the natural ecosystem is a varied and permanent larder and an ally in the struggle against hunger and malnutrition.Watch video · Ed Gein was a notorious killer and grave robber. His activities inspired the creation of some of film's most infamous characters, including Norman Bates of .
Occupational therapy practitioners have a holistic perspective, in which the focus is on adapting the environment to fit the person, and the person is an integral part of the therapy team. This brochure describing occupational therapy can be downloaded and distributed for educational purposes only.
Lifespan, Rhode Island's first health system, is a comprehensive, integrated, academic health system affiliated with The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University. Lifespan hospitals and services include Rhode Island Hospital, its Hasbro Children's Hospital, The Miriam Hospital, Bradley Hospital, Newport Hospital, and Gateway .
"Retrospective" can also be used as a noun, referring to an exhibition that "looks back" at artistic work created over a span of years. Examples of retrospective in a Sentence Adjective. A theoretical perspective is a set of assumptions about reality that inform the questions we ask and the kinds of answers we arrive at as a result.
In this sense, a theoretical perspective can be understood as a lens through which we look, serving to focus or distort what we see.
Cortisol also contributes to memory function across the life span, with evidence that long-exposure to high levels of glucocorticoids is associated with memory impairment and reduced hippocampal volume in the aging brain PSYCHOSOCIAL BIOMARKER RESEARCH AND THE LIFE COURSE PERSECTIVE.