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These realms eventually merged into a single state during the 9th century. His son Erispoe secured the independence of the new kingdom of Brittany and won the Battle of Jengland against Charles the Bald.
The Bretons won another war inand Rencontres seniors en alsace kingdom reached then its maximum extent: Brittany was heavily attacked by the Vikings at the beginning of the 10th century.
The kingdom lost its eastern territories, including Normandy and Anjouand the county of Nantes was given to Fulk I of Anjou in Several Breton lords helped William the Conqueror to invade England and received large estates there e.
William's double-second cousin Alan Rufus and the latter's brother Brian of Brittany.
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Some of these lords were powerful rivals. Medieval Brittany was far from being a united nation. The French king maintained envoys in Brittany, alliances contracted by local lords often overlapped and there was no specific Breton consciousness.
For example, Brittany replaced Latin with French as its official language in the 13th century, years before France did so itself, and the Breton language never had any formal status. The foreign policy of the duchy changed many times; the dukes were usually independent but they often contracted alliances with England or France.
Their support for each nation became very important during the 14th century, because the English kings then started to claim the French throne. The Montforts won in and enjoyed a period of total independence until the end of the Hundred Years' War, because France was weakened and stopped sending royal envoys to the Court of Brittany.
However, Brittany lost the Mad War against France inmostly because of its internal divisions which were exacerbated by the corruption at the court of Francis II, Duke of Brittany.
Indeed, some Breton lords were fighting on the French side. Union with the French Crown and modern period[ edit ] Main article: Union of Brittany and France Anne of Brittany is regarded in Brittany as a conscientious ruler who defended the duchy against France.
Nonetheless, she married the Holy Roman Emperor inbut this led to a severe crisis with France. He eventually married Anne of Brittany.
After he died childless, the duchess had to marry his heir and cousin Louis XII. Anne unsuccessfully tried to preserve Breton independence, but she died in and the union between the two crowns was formally carried out by Francis I in He granted several privileges to Brittany, such as exemption from the gabellea tax on salt which was very unpopular in France.
From the 15th to the 18th century, Brittany reached an economic golden age.
Local seaports like Brest and Saint-Brieuc quickly expanded, and Lorientfirst spelled "L'Orient", was founded in the 17th century. Saint-Malo was then known for its corsairsBrest was a major base for the French Navy and Nantes flourished with the Atlantic slave trade.
On its side, the inland provided hemp ropes and canvas and linen sheets. However, Colbertismwhich encouraged the creation of many factories, did not favour the Breton industry because most of the royal factories were opened in other provinces.
Moreover, several conflicts between France and England led the latter to restrain its trade, and the Breton economy went into recession during the 18th century. Two significant revolts occurred in the 17th and 18th centuries: Both arose from attempts to resist centralisation and assert Breton constitutional exceptions to tax.Latest News.
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