An authoritative guide to Ayurvedic medical applications of herbs. Each use listed is linked to the bibliography so the reader can get more details from the original source. Lists over medicinal herbs available in the West, classified according to their chemical constituents, properties and actions, indicated uses and suggested dosages.
Last Edited December 1, Indigenous peoples have used over a thousand different plants for food, medicine, materials, and in cultural rituals and mythology.
Indigenous peoples in what is now Canada collectively used over a thousand different plants for food, medicine, materials, and in cultural rituals and mythology.
Many of these species, ranging from algae to conifers and flowering plantsremain important in today's indigenous communities. This knowledge of plants and their uses has allowed Aboriginal peoples to thrive in Canada's diverse environments.
Many traditional uses of plants have evolved to be used in modern life by indigenous and non-indigenous peoples alike. Food Plants Before the arrival of Europeans to what is now Canada, Aboriginal peoples practised the cultivation of food crops in a variety of fertile areas. In terms of scale it was at its most elaborate in southern Ontario and the St Lawrence lowland.
Crops included the "Three Sisters" — corn, beans and squash — as well as sunflowerstobacco and, possibly sunchokes the tuber of a species of sunflower. The Three Sisters were often planted together, in what is known as companion planting, where each plant supported the growth and nutrition of the others.
Over species of wild plants provided food for Aboriginal peoples in Canada.
Some of these foods are similar to those eaten today: Traditional foods like maple syrupwild rice and wild fruit are now enjoyed in Canada by indigenous and non-indigenous peoples alike. Other wild foods — some types of lichensmarine algae, and the inner bark tissues of some trees — are not normally part of the modern diet.
Plants were also used as sweeteners, flavourings and beverages; many wild plants provided more than one type of food. Medicinal Plants Plants were, and still are, an important component of indigenous medicine.
Herbal specialists were usually responsible for curing disease and maintaining health. Although administering herbal medicines was sometimes associated with ritual and in many cultures herbal curing and magical curing were virtually inseparable, these specialists were not necessarily shamans who invoked supernatural powers in healing.
Sometimes, special curative and spiritual organizations existed, like the Ojibwa Midewiwin grand medicine society in which initiates passed through stages, eventually learning the ritual and herbalism for curing disease. More than plants were used in indigenous medicine.
Specialists could administer such medicines as herbal teas, preparations to be chewed and swallowed, poultices, inhaled vapours, or a variety of other applications. Specialists could prescribe any part of a plant, either alone or in combination with other herbs.
Aboriginal practitioners were skilled in selection, preparation and dosage of herbal medicines, and traditional treatments were effective in treating a host of ailments, including wounds, skin sores, gastrointestinal disorders, coughs, colds, fevers and rheumatism.
They were treated by the St. Lawrence Iroquoians of Stadacona with a conifer tea of high vitamin C content probably eastern white pine. Utility Plants Woods were of prime importance as fuels, and as major components of utilitarian items: Sheets of bark, especially birch, were made into containers and canoes.
Bark was also used to cover roofs and line storage pits. Fibrous tissues from stems, roots, bark and leaves served for twine, rope and weaving materials for baskets, mats and clothing.
Tree resin was used as glue and waterproofing. Plants provided dyes and pigments, scents, absorbent materials, abrasives, linings and wrappings, insect repellents, toys and recreational items, and personal adornment. Spiritual Importance By representing a spiritual connection with the earth, many plants provide more than just corporeal or utilitarian benefits.
For example, the Haudenosaunee hold several ceremonies — like the Sap, Seed, Strawberry, Bean, and Green Corn ceremonies — that honour the interconnectivity of plant and human life.
Tobacco is of major importance to many peoples, figuring prominently in ceremonies, everyday life, and creation stories. Tobacco, sage, sweet grass and cedar are used for various spiritual purposes in smudging ceremonies, where smoke is fanned over the face and head.
Szczawinski and Nancy J. Turner, Edible Wild Plants of Canada, vols Herbal medicines are the synthesis of therapeutic experiences of generations of practicing physicians of indigenous systems of medicine for over hundreds of years.
Article · Literature Review. The following represents a summary of information about projects which were identified in the review of the literature. Our intent has been to review projects which have been planned or organized to use traditional practitioners (TPs) as community workers in one or more aspects of primary health care.
This book has been around for a while and is a fascinating and very thorough study of northwest indian culture --specifically, the native use of plant materials in daily life. Apr 16, · Herbal Medicine in the United States: Review of Efficacy, Safety, and Regulation to be related to the formation of DNA adducts from the aristolochic acid in this herb.
38 Another common toxicity to herbal medicines involves a case report and systematic review of the literature. J Gen Intern Med.
; – doi: The aerial part of maca has 12 to 20 leaves and the foliage forms a mat-like, creeping system of stems that grows close to the soil. The underground portion of the plant, known as the hypocotyl, is a storage organ and is the part that is used commercially.
Chanca piedra is a small, erect, annual herb that grows 30–40 cm in height. It is indigenous to the rainforests of the Amazon and other tropical areas throughout the .