They served as military auxiliaries in expeditions, as intermediaries between Spaniards and Indians, and as builders of cities throughout the newly founded Viceroyalty of Peru which until the 18th century encompassed most of Spanish South America. As the colonial enterprise evolved, so too did the role of slaves: Slaves also held tremendous appeal to coastal colonists looking for labor to sustain everything from large estates to private households. By the 17th century, the Viceroyalty of Peru had become one of the most important centers of African slavery in the Americas.
For example, a minimum mesh size may be instituted and enforced for the purpose of regulating the size of fish at fish capture and increasing the productivity of the resource; or, a system of licences may be introduced in order to control entry into the fishery for the purpose of maximizing the economic returns from the fishery.
Fishery development, on the other hand, is the expansion of effective effort through a set of assistance programmes again for the purpose of attaining certain objectives.
Fishery development may be defined more broadly to include, in addition to the expansion of fishing effort, improvement in post-harvest technology, marketing and transportation of fishery products as well as the provision of infrastructure and other related facilities.
This need not be so. One need not wait for overfishing to occur before management measures are taken. Overfishing is better avoided by judicious management measures taken along with development.
Similarly, the need for development is not confined to underexploited fisheries. As management of overexploited fisheries sooner or later involves the regulation of fishing effort, development, fishery-related or otherwise, is needed to absorb the surplus labour and capital.
In many developing countries, enforcement of management regulations is virtually impossible without development of sufficiently attractive employment alternatives elsewhere. In the sequel we focus on fishery management and development narrowly defined, broadening our focus as we go along to include these other aspects of fishery development.
Finally, in section 4. These interrelations notwithstanding, the priority in overexploited fisheries is for management and in underexploited fisheries for development. How this optimum is defined depends, of course, on the specific objectives of the policy-makers.
If the policy objective is maximum fish production then the optimum rate of exploitation is defined by the maximum sustainable yield MSYthat is, the maximum catch that can be obtained on a sustained basis.
Thus, it is not sufficient to know the MSY and to compare it with the actual catch; we need also to know the fishing effort required to obtain MSY and to compare it with actual effort.
If, on the other hand, the policy objective is to maximize the economic benefit to the national economy from the fishery, the optimum rate of exploitation is defined by the maximum economic yield MEYthat is, the maximum sustainable surplus of revenues over fishing costs.
Alternatively, MEY may be thought of as a modification of MSY to take into account the value of the fish caught and the cost of catching it. The fishery is said to be underexploited in the economic sense and to require further development if the actual catch falls short of MEY due to insufficient effort.
Analogously,the fishery is said to be overexploited in the economic sense and to call for management if the actual catch falls short of MEY due to excess fishing effort. In cases where social considerations, such as the improvement of socio-economic conditions of small-scale fishermen, generation of employment opportunities and improvement of income distribution matter, the optimum rate of exploitation is defined by a third concept, the maximum social yield MScY 8.
This is the level of catch and corresponding effort which provides the best possible solution to social problems given the policy objectives and all possible alternatives.
Alternatively, the MScY may be thought of as modification of the MEY to account for non-purely-efficiency aspects, such as poverty and distribution. Introduction of social considerations may limit the speed with which management measures are introduced, or it may justify a more intensive rate of fishing than is justified on purely economic grounds.
Thus, levels of effort below the one corresponding to MScY may be termed socio-economic underexploitation, while levels of effort above it, socio-economic overexploitation.Sep 02, · The Situation of Social Stratification in the Philippines Posted on September 2, September 3, by MDE Social Stratification is a classification whereby people rank and evaluate each other as higher and, on the basis of evaluations; inequality rewarded one another with wealth authority, influence and status.
Socioeconomic status is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family’s economic and social position relative to others, based on income and education, and. 2.
Introduction. Socioeconomic status is one of those terms typically learned in a seventh grade social studies or civics class and then used in college term papers to subtly suggest a deep understanding of how society works, or perhaps how it should work.
a) analyze the effect of socio-economic status, parental education and occupation on quality of students’ academic performance. b) explore the effect of socio-economic status on student’s. kaja-net.com innovative potential of cell phone technology in an evolutionary perspective.
Since its inception billions of years ago, the evolution of life on earth has been shaped by two highly consistent physical constraints. Oct 12, · Despite comprising only 1% of the Philippine population, income classes A and B own 9% of total incomes in the country.
Worse, their income is almost equivalent to the total income earned by 30% of the families in the Philippines.