The environmental impact of irrigation includes the changes in quantity and quality of soil and water as a result of irrigation and the ensuing effects on natural and social conditions at the tail-end and downstream of the irrigation scheme. The impacts stem from the changed hydrological conditions owing to the installation and operation of the scheme. An irrigation scheme often draws water from the river and distributes it over the irrigated area. As a hydrological result it is found that:
Coasts of Erosion Wave-cut platforms Coasts of erosion form as a result of high energy waves, large fetch, high exposure and limited deposition. They are also associated with drift alligned coasts that are influenced by longshore drift.
Coastlines, that are discordant in geology help create typical headland and bay features that also erode over time to form wave-cut platforms and arches and stacks. Wave cut platforms as illustrated in the diagram and shown in the photograph are remnants of the previous cliff line.
They form as a ledge of bedrock left behind as the dliff retreats. The platform slopes at at degree angle down to the sea. It forms as waves erode the base of the cliff in the Cliffs and wave-cut platforms inter-tidal zone.
Waves scour away at the base through processes of abrasion, hydraulic action and solution, untill over time a wave-cut notch forms. As the notch enlarges, the cliff face becomes undermined untill at some point it collapases under its own weight. Attrition and transportation then remove the cliff debris leaving behind a small bedrock ledge, which marks the old cliff line.
This process is repeated over time as the cliff retreats forming a larger wave-cut platfrom. Wave-cut platforms are characterised by their gentle sloping angle, hard bedrock and rock pools, which develop unique coastal ecosytems.
This is superbly animated below. Headlands and Bays Headlands and Bays Source: GeobytesGCSE Headlands and bays are most commonly found at discordant coastlines where the cliif is subject to differentiated rates of erosion, due to bands of of varying resistant geology.
However, as already explained, they also form at concordant coasts and in sections of cliff that have more distinct lines of weakness. Here the cliff erodes at a faster rate. Bays are flanked by headlands which are exposed rocky outcrops positioned at 90 perpendicular to the bay.
They consist of more resistant rock, e. Due to the way waves refract around headlands, destructive waves concentrate their energy on their sides and over time develop unique coastal features, such as caves, arches and stacks.
Wave refraction is the process by which waves become distorted by differentiated rates of friction caused by shallower water ahead of coastal features. In deep water waves are unaffected but in shallow water waves slow down.
On approaching the shorline waves will curve in to beaches and reducer the liklihood of drift.
Wave refraction is superbly explained and illustrated in the following animation: Caves, Arches, Stacks and Stumps Headlands, once formed, are exposed to the full force of the sea. As a result of wave refraction, destructive waves concentrate their energy on all three sides of the headland and so it slowly erodes overtime.
In doing so, quite distinct features develop. In Geography, the erosion of headlands in developing the sequence of cave to stumps is well developed, but how is it extended at the Post 16 level. The diagram below left, shows a well annotated headland, at the I GCSE level and it explains how headlands erode over time.
It also shows the sequence through numbering. The second diagram shows a Post 16 model example. This shows how vocabulary is used to exemplify. It also introduces a greater complexity of processes. At Post 16 the question you should expect will be one that focuses on rates of erosion.
In this way you nnot only have to identofy varying rates within headland and bays, but you should also be thinking of ocean fetch, exposure, geoology and sub-aerial processes. Cave - Stump Formaton Source: They tend to overlook less obvious, but equally important features, for example, the beach.
However, deposition is a lot more complex than this and it is important to develop a structure that puts the emphasis on place and scale. The starting point to discussing depositional features is with swash and drift aligned beaches.
Remember, a swash aligned beach brings in waves parallel to the shore and as result, they build up beaches. Swash aligned beaches are more influenced by constructive wave patterns, which are also important for building up large beaches.
In contrast, drift aligned coasts bring in waves at an angle to the shoreline and so therefore, the waves tend to transport sediment down the coast, keeping beaches relatively narrow.
It is drift aligned beaches that are mainly associated with spits, bars and tombolos. Swash beaches are more associated with large beach profiles, with dunes, a variety of berms and beach drainage features.
The Beach Profile Sefton Coast:Landforms are constantly being broken down and reformed by the processes of weathering, erosion, and deposition. In this lesson, we explore. Coastal erosion is a natural process of erosion, transportation, and deposition, and interfering with this balance could be to blame for the rise in erosion on the coasts of some areas.
Seawalls have been built out to sea in many areas of the coastline. At some point in their exploration of Brazil, the Portuguese encountered an animal they called bicho-preguiça (lazy animal or animal sloth). (Portugese Wikipedia).The French called it Paresseux and the Spanish Perezosos or Pereza (lazy).
The English called it a Sloth.
Coastal erosion is a natural process of erosion; transportation and deposition, interfering with this balance could be to blame for the rise in erosion on the coasts of some areas. Groynes have been built out to sea in many areas of the British coastline/5(3).
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Print nelson he states that if the coastal erosion is not corrected then the following economic conditions are likely to be affected: the transportation of oil and gas may be disrupted, navigation will also be hampered as erosion will make it difficult to navigate through the.